Propositional logic, logical equivalence, predicates & quantifiers, and logical reasoning. Set basics, set operations; one-to-one function, onto function, inverse, composition; greatest common divisor, Euclidean algorithm. Sequences and Summations;Mathematical reasoning: Proof strategies,Mathematical Induction, Recursive definitions, Structural Induction; Counting: basic rules, Pigeon hall principle, Permutations and combinations, Binomial coefficients and Pascal triangle. Probability: Discrete probability. Expected values and variance. Relations: properties, Combining relations, Closures, Equivalence, partial ordering; Graphs.